Metrics details. Regular physical activity improves overall health, and has the capacity to reduce risk of chronic diseases and death. However, better understanding of the relationship between multiple lifestyle risk behaviours and disease outcomes is pertinent for prioritising public health messaging. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the association between physical inactivity in combination with additional lifestyle risk behaviours smoking, alcohol, diet, or sedentary behaviour for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Main exposure variables had to include a physical activity measure plus at least one other lifestyle risk factor.
Reducing the risks of developing heart disease
Reducing the risks of developing heart disease | NHS inform
Because bone loss is gradual and painless, there are usually no symptoms to indicate a person is developing osteoporosis. This is why osteoporosis is often referred to as a silent disease. Often the first symptom of osteoporosis is a fracture. Most commonly, osteoporotic fractures occur at the spine, the wrist or the hip, although osteoporotic fractures can occur in other bones as well. Since the clinical outcome of osteoporosis is bone fracture, attention is now increasingly focused on the identification of patients at high risk of fracture in addition to the identification of people with osteoporosis as defined by bone mineral density BMD alone  Dawson-Hughes, B.
Most modifiable risk factors directly impact bone biology and result in a decrease in bone mineral density BMD , but some of them also increase the risk of fracture independently of their effect on bone itself. These include  Kanis, J. Osteoporos Int, The relationship between alcohol intake and fracture risk is nonlinear. No significant increase in risk is observed for intakes of 2 units or less daily e.
A large extent of factors cannot be controlled . These include the determinants of health — individual, socio-cultural, socio-economic and environmental aspects and modifiable and non-modifiable characteristics. Over long term, knowledge, skills, attitudes and genetics will pose a major influence on the individual that will help them sustain a healthy behaviour to achieve the best lifestyle.