Leninism is a political ideology developed by Russian Marxist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin that proposes the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat led by a revolutionary vanguard party , as the political prelude to the establishment of communism. The function of the Leninist vanguard party is to provide the working classes with the political consciousness education and organisation and revolutionary leadership necessary to depose capitalism in the Russian Empire — In the aftermath of the October Revolution , Leninism was the dominant version of Marxism in Russia and the basis of Soviet Democracy , the rule of directly elected soviets. As revolutionary praxis , Leninism originally was neither a proper philosophy nor a discrete political theory. Leninism comprises politico-economic developments of orthodox Marxism and Lenin's interpretations of Marxism, which function as a pragmatic synthesis for practical application to the actual conditions political, social, economic of the post- emancipation agrarian society of Imperial Russia in the early 20th century. In the 19th century, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote the Manifesto of the Communist Party in which they called for the political unification of the European working classes in order to achieve communist revolution ; and proposed that, because the socio-economic organization of Communism was of a higher form than that of capitalism , a workers' revolution first would occur in the industrialised countries.
2N Revolution and dictatorship: Russia, 1917–1953
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Socialism is a political , social , and economic philosophy encompassing a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production. Socialist systems are divided into non-market and market forms. Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. Socialist politics has been both internationalist and nationalist in orientation; organised through political parties and opposed to party politics; at times overlapping with trade unions and at other times independent and critical of them; and present in both industrialised and developing nations. The socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov [b] 22 April [ O. He served as the first and founding head of government of Soviet Russia from to and of the Soviet Union from to Under his administration, Russia, and later the Soviet Union, became a one-party socialist state governed by the Soviet Communist Party. A Marxist , he developed a variant of this communist ideology known as Leninism. Born to a moderately prosperous middle-class family in Simbirsk , Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother 's execution.
The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire , commencing with the abolition of the monarchy in and concluding in with the Bolshevik establishment of the Soviet Union at the end of the Civil War. The revolution erupted in the context of Russia's major military losses during the war, which resulted in much of the Russian Army being ready to mutiny. In the chaos, members of the Duma , Russia's parliament, assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. This was dominated by the interests of large capitalists and the Russian nobility and aristocracy.